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    Change gears a lower rpm

    If you have a manual gearbox, change gears at lower engine rpm. As a broad rule of thumb, change up before 3000rpm if you are driving a petrol-engine car and before 2000rpm if you have a diesel. And if your car has an automatic gearbox, avoid using the 'sport' mode as this means gear changes occur at higher engine rpm. Also, avoid 'kick down', which causes the gearbox to jump to a lower gear for more aggressive acceleration.

    Shift from first to third gear

    On straight and level roads, shift from first to third gear for efficient progress. Accelerate gently and avoid pressing the throttle pedal more than half way down.

    Anticipate traffic flow

    Look well ahead to judge traffic flow. Avoid unnecessary acceleration and braking, as less stopping and starting means less CO2 emissions.

    Maintain a steady speed

    Drive at a constant speed and in the highest gear possible. For example, 80 kilometres per hour in top gear is fine for most cars and will contribute to lower fuel consumption.

    Turn off the engine

    If you have to wait more than one minute for, say, a traffic jam or train crossing, switching off your engine can save you up to 0.5 litres of fuel every hour.

    Slow down

    More than 50% of the energy required to move a car is spent overcoming aerodynamic drag (pushing the air out of the way). The faster you drive, the more aerodynamic drag increases and fuel economy decreases. Increasing your cruising speed from 100 kilometres per hour to 120 kilometres per hour will increase fuel consumption by about 20%. Reducing your speed from 100 kilometres per hour to 90 kilometres per hour improves fuel economy by about 10%.

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